Chemistry is the branch of physical science which deals with the study of matter, its physical and chemical properties, its chemical composition, the physical and chemical changes which it undergoes and the energy changes that accompany these processes.
All the objects in this universe are composed of matter. Most of these objects are visible but some are invisible.
Why chemistry is termed as material science?
chemistry is termed as material science because it is concerned with all the material substances like air, water, rocks, minerals, plants, animals including humans, the earth and also the other planets.
According to the famous scientist “Linus Pauling” chemistry is the science of substances, their properties, their structure and their transformations.
Chemistry is a very interesting subject
Yes! Chemistry is a very interesting subject which touches almost all aspects of our lives, our culture and our environment. It has changed our civilization to a great extent. Chemistry has provided man with more comforts for a healthier and happier life.
A few decades back our clothes and footwears were exclusively of natural origin such as vegetable fibres, wool, hair, skin of animals etc. but now the synthetic fibres produced in chemical factories have largely replaced them. modern chemistry have given us new plastics, fuels, metal alloys, fertilizers, building materials, drugs, energy sources and so many other wonderful things to change our life 360 degree.
Branches of Chemistry:
There are four main branches of chemistry :
- Organic chemistry : It is concerned with the study of compounds of carbon except carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanides, isocyanides, carbides and oxides of carbon. It is actually the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
- Inorganic chemistry: It deals with the study of all known elements and their compounds except organic compounds. It is mainly concerned with the materials obtained from minerals, air, sea and soil.
- Physical chemistry: It is concerned with the physical properties and constitution of the matter, the law of chemical combinations and theory, governing reactions. The effects of temperature, pressure, light, concentration, etc. on reactions come under the scope of physical chemistry.
- Analytical chemistry: it deals with the various methods of analysis of chemical substances both qualitative and quantitative.
Specialised branches of chemistry:
- Bio-chemistry : Study of substances related to the living organism and life processes.
- Medicinal chemistry: It deals with the applications of chemical substances to the prevention and cure of various diseases in living beings.
- Soil and agriculture chemistry: It deals with the analysis and treatment of soils so as to increase its fertility for the better yield of crops. It is concerned with the fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, germicides, herbicides etc.
- Geo-chemistry: study of natural substances like ores, minerals, coals, petroleum etc.
- Industrial chemistry: it deals with the study of chemical processes for the production of useful chemical on large scale at relatively low cost.
- Nuclear chemistry: it is the most recent branch of chemistry which deals with the study of nuclear reactions, productions of radioactive isotopes and their applications in various fields.
- Structural chemistry: it deals with the various processes and techniques used for elucidation of the structure of chemical substances.
- Polymer chemistry: it includes the study of the chemicals with very high molecular masses of the order of 100000 or greater called polymers.
- Limnochemistry: study of the chemicals involved in the river water or water reservoirs.
- Phytochemistry: Chemistry of plants.